The. Net framework is Microsoft's software development platform. The framework was intended to create applications running on the Windows Platform. In 2002, the first version of the. Net framework was released.
The version was referred to as the.net 1.0. Since then the. Net framework has gone a long way, with the current version 4.7.2.
The .Net framework can be used to create applications for both Form Based and Web Based. Using the .Net framework, Web Services can also be developed.
In simple words, .Net Framework is a virtual machine used to compile and run programs in various languages such as C #, VB.Net, etc. On the .Net platform a wide range of programs are available, the most common are VB.Net and C#. It is used to build Windows, Mobile, Web applications etc. It offers many features and supports industry standards.
.NET Framework supports over 60 programming languages in which Microsoft designs and develops 11 programming languages. The remaining languages supported by the .NET framework but not developed by Microsoft are non-Microsoft languages.
11 Programming Languages, designed and developed by Microsoft are:
The. Net Framework architecture is based on the following key elements:
CLR is the core component of the .NET framework for Virtual Machine. It is run time environment in the. NET Framework that runs the codes and facilitates the development process by providing various services such thread management, memory management, remoting, type-safety, robustness and so forth. In principle, it is responsible for managing the execution of.NET programs irrespective of any language of programming. It helps also in managing code because code that is intended for runtime is known as managed code and code that is not intended to runtime is known as unmanaged code.
Common Language Infrastructure
Common Language Infrastructure is a Microsoft-based standard which allows the use of multiple languages on different computer platforms without rewriting the code for a particular architecture. In simple terms, Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) allows an application to run on any system using a common runtime program written in common programming languages, rather than in a language-specific one.
Garbage collection is the process whereby the CRL (Common Language Runtime) of the .NET framework manages the memory by automatically allocating and releasing the memory. When we create a class object at runtime, it is assigned certain memory space in the heap storage. However, the memory space allocated to the object is a waste since it can not be used when all the actions related to the object in the program are completed.
In this case, Garbage Collection is extremely useful as it releases the memory space automatically when it is no longer needed. The waste collection is always managed by Heap and has an engine, known as the Optimizing Engine internally.
Just-In-Time Compiler(JIT) is a common language runtime (CLR) part in. NET that manages the execution of. NET programmes, regardless of any .NET language of programming. The source code is converted to the intermediate language by A language-specific compiler . The Just-In-Time (JIT) compiler converts this intermediate language into the machine code. This machine code is a computer-specific code that the JIT compiler runs on.
Common Language Specification
It converts syntactical rules and regulations into CLR (Common Language Runtime) understandable formats for the various .NET programming language. Basically, It provides interoperability of languages.
Language interoperability means that the implementation support is also available in the .NET framework for other programming languages.
Common Type System (CTS)
All programming languages have their own data-type system so CTS (Common Type System) understands all of the .NET programming languages data type system and converts them to a commonly used format, which is CLR-understandable format.
It is a collection of reusable libraries and methods of object-oriented classes etc, which can be built into CLR. Also konwn as Assemblies. It's exactly the same as the C / C++ Header files and java packages. Basically, installing the.NET framework is the installation in the system of CLR and FCL.
The platform is known as the combination of Operating Systems and CPU Architecture. Platform dependent means that only the specific operating system will run its programming language code. A.NET application depends on the platform, due to the. NET framework that can only run on the Windows operating system.
Also due to Mono Framework, the .Net application is a platform independent. The. Net application can be operated on any operating system, including windows, using Mono Framework. Mono framework is a software developed by the Novell Company that now part of the Micro Focus Company.
|.NET Version||CRL Version||Development Tool||Windows Support|
|1.0||1.0||Visual Studio .NET||XP SP1|
|1.1||1.1||Visual Studio .NET 2003||XP SP2, SP3|
|2.0||2.0||Visual Studio 2005||N/A|
|3.5||2.0||Visual Studio 2008||7, 8, 8.1, 10|
|4.0||4||Visual Studio 2010||N/A|
|4.5||4||Visual Studio 2012||8|
|4.5.1||4||Visual Studio 2013||8.1|
|4.6||4||Visual Studio 2015||10 v1507|
|4.6.1||4||Visual Studio 2015 Update 1||10 v1511|
|4.7||4||Visual Studio 2017||10 v1703|
|4.7.1||4||Visual Studio 2017||10 v1709|
|4.7.2||4||Visual Studio 2017||10v 1803|